This paper deals with a brief analysis on the term last days and its correlates throughout the Bible with emphasis on the Pastoral Epistles. The paper is split into three parts. The first one deals with some Old Testament passages containing allusions to the messianic age or to the end of History. The second one explores the Christological meaning of the term last days and its correlates in the New Testament. Finally, the third one focuses on the Pastoral Epistles by assessing the phrases in later times (1 Tim 4:1), in the later days (2 Tim 3:1), and the time is coming (2 Tim 4:3). The analysis of the data will show that Paul and the other New Testament writers understood that they were already living on the last days, and that the apostasy which was already at work in their own time would increase until reach its climax on the time immediately before the second Coming of Christ.
AAGESON, J. W. Judaizing. IN: Freedman, D. N (Ed.). The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
ACHTEMEIER, P. J. 1 Peter: A Commentary on First Peter, IN: ELDON J. E (Ed.). Hermeneia: a critical and historical commentary on the Bible. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1996.
ACHTEMEIER, P. Harper’s Bible Dictionary. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1985.
AKIN, D. L. 1, 2, 3 John. Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2001.
ARICHEA, D. C.; HATTON, H. A Handbook on Paul’s Letters to Timothy and to Titus. New York: United BIBLE SOCIETIES, 1995.
BATTEN, A. J. The Jesus Tradition and the Letter of James. Review & Expositor, Thousand Oaks, v. 108, n. 3, p. 381-390, 2011.
BEALE, G. K. The Book of Revelation: a commentary on the greek text. Eerdmans: Paternoster Press, 1999.
BEALE, G. K.; MCDONOUGH, S. M. Revelation. IN: BEALE, G. K.; CARSON, D. A. Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament. Michigan: Baker Academic, 2007.
BELLEVILLE, L. Commentary on 1 Timothy, IN: COMFORT, P. W. (Ed.). Cornerstone Biblical Commentary: 1 Timothy, 2 Timothy, Titus, and Hebrews. Carol Stream: Tyndale House Publishers, 2009.
BENNETT, D. Chapter V: The Stone Kingdom of Daniel 2. IN: HOLBROOK, F. B. (Ed.). Symposium on Daniel. Washington, DC: Biblical Research Institute, 1986.
CARSON, D. A. James. IN: BEALE, G. K.; CARSON, D. A. Commentary on the New Testament Use of the Old Testament. Michigan: Baker Academic, 2007.
CROSS, F. L.; LIVINGSTONE, E. A, (Eds.). The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford, NY: Oxford University Press, 2005.
DAVIDS, P. H. The Letters of 2 Peter and Jude. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2006.
DIBELIUS, M.; CONZELMANN, H. The Pastoral Epistles. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1972.
DYBDAHL, J. L. (Ed.). Andrews Study Bible. Berrien Springs: Andrews University Press, 2010.
ELLINGWORTH, P. The Epistle to the Hebrews. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1993.
ELLINGWORTH, P.; NIDA, E. A. A Handbook on the Letter to the Hebrews. New York: United Bible Societies, 1994.
FIENSY, D. A. New Testament Introduction. Joplin, MO: College Press Publishing Company, 1997.
FITZGERALD, J. T. Virtue/Vice Lists. IN: FREEDMAN, D. N. (Ed.). The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
GARRETT, D. A. Hosea, Joel. Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1997.
GEISLER, N. L. Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics. Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1999.
GRENZ, S.; GURETZKI, D.; NORDLING, C. F. Pocket Dictionary of Theological Terms. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1999.
HARRIS, M. J. The Second Epistle to the Corinthians. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2005.
HILLERS, D. R. Micah: A commentary on the book of the prophet Micah. IN: HANSON P. D.; FISHER, L. R. Hermeneia: a critical and historical commentary on the Bible. Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1984.
HAWTHORNE, G. F.; MARTIN, R. P.; REID, D. G. (Eds.). Dictionary of Paul and His Letters. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1993.
JOHNSON, L. T. The First and Second Letters to Timothy: a new translation with introduction and commentary. New York: Doubleday, 2001.
KAISER JR., W. C. Back toward the Future: hints for interpreting biblical prophecy. Eugene: Wipf & Stock Publishers, 2003.
KELLY, J. N. D. The Epistles of Peter and of Jude. London: Continuum, 1969.
KELLY, J. N. D. The Pastoral Epistles. London: Continuum, 1963.
KNIGHT, G. W. The Pastoral Epistles. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1992.
LEA, TH. D.; BLACK, D. A. The New Testament: its background and message. Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2003.
LEA, TH. D.; GRIFFIN, H. P. 1, 2 Timothy, Titus: an exegetical and theological exposition of holy scripture. Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1992.
LARONDELLE, H. The Time of the End and the Last Days. Journal of the Adventist Theological Society, v.2, n. 2, 1991.
LARONDELLE, H. How to Understand the End-Time Prophecies of the Bible: a biblical contextual approach. Bradenton: First Impressions, 2007.
LENSKI, C. H. The Interpretation of the Epistle to the Hebrews and of the Epistle of James. Columbus: Lutheran Book Concern, 1938.
MANGUM, D.; TWIST, E. T. 1 Timothy. IN: BARRY, J. D. (Ed.). BOMAR, D.; BROWN, D. R.; KLIPPENSTEIN, R. MANGUM, D.; WOLCOTT, C. S.; WENTZ, L. Lexham Bible Guide. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2013.
MCELENEY, N. J. The Vice Lists of the Pastoral Epistles. The Catholic Biblical Quarterly, v. 36, n. 2, p. 204-210, 1974.
MOO, D. J. The Letter of James. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2000.
MOUNCE, W. D. Pastoral Epistles. 46. ed. Dallas: Word Incorporated, 2000.
MUTSCHLER, B. Eschatology in the Pastoral Epistles. IN: VAN DER WATT, J. G., (Ed.). Eschatology of the New Testament and Some Related Documents. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2011.
NICHOL, F. D. (Ed.). The Seventh-Day Adventist Bible Commentary. 4th. ed. Hangersatown: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1977.
NICHOL, F. D. (Ed.). The Seventh-Day Adventist Bible Commentary. 7th. ed. Hangersatown: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1980.
NYGAARD, M. Asceticism. In: BARRY, J. D. (Ed.). BOMAR, D.; BROWN, D. R.; KLIPPENSTEIN, R. MANGUM, D.; WOLCOTT, C. S.; WENTZ, L. The Lexham Bible Dictionary. Bellingham: Lexham Press, 2016.
ODEN, TH. C. First and Second Timothy and Titus. Louisville: J. Knox Press, 1989.
OSBORNE, G. R. Revelation. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2002.
PATE, C. M. Apostle of the Last Days: the life, letters, and Theology of Paul. Grand Rapids: Kregel Academic, 2013.
PFANDL, G. The latter days and the time of the end in the Book of Daniel. 1990. PhD Dissertation (PhD in Religion, Old Testament Studies) – Andrews University, Berrien Springs, 1990.
POLHILL, J. B. Acts. vol. 26. Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1992.
PORTER JR, V. V. The Use of the Sermon on the Mount in the Epistle of James. PhD Dissertation (PhD in Religion) – Dallas Theological Seminary, Ann Arbor, 2003.
RAY JR., P. Exegesis of Matthew 24:21-35: this generation and the structure of Matthew 23-25. Journal of the Adventist Theological Society, v. 8, n. 1-2, 1999.
RIUS-CAMPS, J. Las Variantes de la Recension Occidental De Los Hechos de los Apóstoles. Filología Neotestamentaria, Cordoba, v. 8, n. 15, 1995.
RICHARDSON, K. A. James. Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1997.
ROEHRS, W. H.; FRANZMANN, M. H. Concordia Self-Study Commentary. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1998.
STEFANOVIC, R. Revelation of Jesus Christ: commentary on the book of revelation. 2nd ed. Berrien Springs: Andrews University Press, 2009.
SHIRES, H. M. The Eschatology of Paul in the Light of Modern Scholarship. Philadelphia: Westminster, 1996.
SCHREINER, T. R. 1, 2 Peter, Jude. Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2003.
TURNER, M. Review of The Epistles of Paul to the Colossians and to Philemon: an introduction and commentary by N. T. Wright, Themelios, v. 13, n. 2, p. 63, 1988.
VOORST, R. E. V. Judaizing. IN: FREEDMAN, D. N.; MYERS, A. C.; BECK, A. B. Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible. Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 2000.
WILLIS, J. T. The Expression be'acharith hayyamim in the Old Testament. Restoration Quarterly, v. 22, n. 1-2, p. 54-71, 1979.
WRIGHT, J. S. Times and Season. In: ARMENDING, C. E.; GASQUE, W. W. A Guide to Biblical Prophecy. Eugene: Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2001.
YAMAUCHI, E. Pre-christian gnosticism, the New Testament and Nag Hammadi in recent debate, Themelios, v. 10, n. 1, p. 22-27, 1984.
LARONDELLE, H. The Time of the End and the last days. Journal of the Adventist Theological Society, v. 2, n. 2, p. 31, 1991.
J. B. POLHILL, Acts: the new american commentary. Nashville: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 1992.
NYGAARD, M, Asceticism. IN: BARRY, J. D. (Ed.); BOMAR, D.; BROWN, D. R.; KLIPPENSTEIN, R.; MANGUM, D.; SINCLAIR-WOLCOTT, C.; WENTZ, L. The Lexham Bible Dictionary. Bellingham: Lexham Press, 2016.